I am going to be at the Bronte parsonage museum for Charlottes birthday next weekend and I have been working on a talk to give visitors who may not know much about the Brontes an introduction to Charlotte ,but which will also be interesting to those who do know much more about the Brontes.
As I will be partly talking alongside the museums current displays in her room I thought that using key items would be an interesting approach.I submit my rough notes for input from other bloggers.My approach is based on my favourite ” the artifacts don’t lie “approach but was also inspired by Charlotte’s poem
by: Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855)
- RRANGING long-locked drawers and shelves
Of cabinets, shut up for years,
What a strange task we’ve set ourselves!
How still the lonely room appears!
How strange this mass of ancient treasures,
Mementos of past pains and pleasures;
These volumes, clasped with costly stone,
With print all faded, gilding gone;These fans of leaves from Indian trees–
These crimson shells, from Indian seas–
These tiny portraits, set in rings–
Once, doubtless, deemed such precious things;
Keepsakes bestowed by Love on Faith,
And worn till the receiver’s death,
Now stored with cameos, china, shells,
- .I wanted to use these “Keepsakes bestowed by love on faith ” to illuminate Charlotte’s life and her hidden life ,,,The memento by Charlotte Bronte (cont)In that endowed and youthful frame;
Shrined in her heart and hid from day,
They burned unseen with silent flame.
In youth’s first search for mental light,
She lived but to reflect and learn,
But soon her mind’s maturer might
For stronger task did pant and yearn;
And stronger task did fate assign,
Task that a giant’s strength might strain;
To suffer long and ne’er repine,
Be calm in frenzy, smile at pain.
I picked so far
The going away dress
Charlotte’s writing slope and its contents
The pink wrapper gown
The silk fan
For those unable to attend next week here’s a brief summary
The going away dress
This is currently on display and as I had a chance to study it in detail last year,it seemed a good choice.The gown is fashionable but practical and beautifully made ,it also symbolises the last few months of Charlotte’s life ,her time as a bride,It will give excellent scope to talk about Charlotte’s other proposals of marriage and of her short happy married life with Arthur Bell Nicholls.
The going away gown was a fashionable up to date choice for a traveling outfit ,it’s very probable that the gold trim at the neckline and waist was much brighter when the gown was new which would have made it look much more eye-catching than now ,highlighting the waist .It would have been worn over several petticoats to create fullness to the skirts.We know Charlotte bought ,made or had made several new gowns for both the London trips and for her trousseau.These gowns are invaluable for an insight into Charlottes true tastes,as a governess or teacher the gowns she wore needed to be sombre,while financial restraints limited her earlier choices of fabric and style .While Charlotte remained mindful of costs and was not an extravagant clothes shopper,she did enjoy buying clothing and once free to indulge her tastes choose stylish and either elegant outfits such as this or pretty feminine gowns such as her Paisley gown .
The Sugar tongues
I want to use items which illustrate daily life at the parsonage as the life Charlotte led for most of her life was that of a parsons unmarried daughter so I choose the sugar tongs ,partly because unlike the china I own a very similar pair of tongues which I can use as a visual aid and which I am not overly attached to so will be happy to leave on the kids activity table in between times.The tongues to me symbolised the endless teas and afternoon teas taken with sunday school teachers ,other parsons ,curates and locals on church bussiness.Also the rigidly observed custom of “visiting” essential to young ladies when elsewhere ,such as in Brussels ,where it was an obvious chore to Emily at least .It also shows the lack of social graces Charlotte had or exhibited in company were perhaps she either felt ill at ease or where she saw no reason to “exhibit”
Anne Thackeray mentions Charlotte’s lack of conversation at Thackeray’s dinner
It was a gloomy and silent evening,” Anne Thackery wrote ” Everyone waited for the brilliant conversation which never began at all.”
Lastly they symbolise the upturn in Charlotte’s fortunes as a writer when luxuries such as silver sugar tongues became possible and give scope to mention her improvements to the parsonage.
The Writing slope
I am indebted to http://soeursbronte.wordpress.com/2011/03/05/le-papier-l%E2%80%99ecritoire-et-la-plume/ for use of this image
This symbolised to me the ever present inner life of Charlotte ,wherever she went she carried this inner world.Even if she were writing to Ellen about her miserable and confined life on the slope
“Stupidity the atmosphere, school books the emplyment, asses the society, what in all this is there to remind me of the divine, silent, unseen land of thought?”
or in another letter,,
“If you knew my thoughts; the dreams that absorb me; and the fiery imagination that at times eats me up … you would pity and I daresay despise me.
Under the slopes pane was almost certainly drafts of poems she had written.
The slope therefore also ties in very nicely to her poetry and her long term correspondence with Ellen which forms the basis of much of what we know of Bronte Family life.I will use my own slope and try to collect a similar collection of items to those in Charlotte’s desk .The little book in Charlotte’s I will use to mention Angria and the Brontes little books.
I also mentioned that the slopes contents highlighted a hidden element of Charlottes life that was a daily influence from the day she was born to the day she died ,Religion.Charlotte was born a Parsons daughter and died a curates wife and a parsons daughter she spent almost her entire life just a few yards from a chruch and her year would have been regulated by the churchers year.Days began and ended with prayers,we know that one of the last things she heard was her husbands prayers ,Arthur Bell Nichols had been praying earnesttly that Charlotte might live and Charlotte replied with what may have been her last known words
“Oh, I am not going to die, am I? He will not separate us, we have been so happy.”
The writing slope was also one of the very few private spaces a school girl, governess or teacher might have , Schoolgirls usually shared rooms if not actual beds ,A teacher may also have to share a room and while a governess usually had her own room her employers had every right to access it at any time .Writing slopes could be locked and their keys carried around so they were a rare place to keep items or writings that you might want to keep private.
The pink Wrapper gown
Not on display but I do have photos and hope by next week to have my replica gown made or at least the cape part.I think this is excellent for showing more of the sisters hidden life ,the mornings doing housework ,writing letters etc prior to receiving visitors when these gowns were worn without the restraints of Victorian layers and corsets ,perhaps it was worn while Charlotte wrote her poetry or novels..It perfectly highlights the hidden Charlotte who loved pretty things but spent much of her life confined to a wardrobe suitable for a teacher or governess, browns ,greys ,blacks .Charlotte was not unattractive though on the whole we tend to assume she was ,she was certainly not beautiful or physically attractive
description by Smith her publisher
“I must confess that my first impression of Charlotte Bronte’s personal appearance was that it was interesting rather than attractive. She was very small, and had a quaint old-fashioned look. Her head seemed too large for her body. She had very fine eyes… There was but little feminine charm about her and of this fact she herself was uneasy and perpetually conscious. Perhaps few women ever existed more anxious to be pretty than she, or more angrily conscious of the circumstances that she was not pretty.”
,but then neither were some of the most famous women in history and even George Smith seems to found her interesting and eyes attractive,while despite his protestions he seemed to take more interest and care in her than was strictly necessary.
“On one occasion I took Miss Bronte to the Ladies’ Gallery of the House of Commons. The Ladies’ Gallery of those days was behind the Strangers’ Gallery, and from it one could see the eyes of the ladies above, nothing more. I told Miss Bronte that if she felt tired and wished to go away, she had only to look at me; I should know by the expression of her eyes what she meant – and that I would come round for her. After a time I looked and looked. There were many eyes, they all seemed to be flashing signals to me, but much as I admired Miss Bronte’s eyes I could not distinguish them from the others.
Charlotte despite having no money whatsoever managed to attract several proposals of marriage one from a man she only met once ,one from a friends brother who though obviously not passionately in love seems to have been fond of and respected her , Despite the assumption that she was considered frumpish and ugly by the “London set” she also received a proposal from James Taylor a member of the publishing house .While among the men of Haworth it may not have been only Arthur Bell Nichols who was interested in or attracted to her ,she seems to have known that other men may have also considered proposing and rather than being the ignored old maid ,Charlotte was in fact wary of encouraging too much attention from some of Haworth males
Charlotte to Ellen Nussey (sept 1850)
I think I have scarcely seen a single man with whom such a union would be possible since I left London. Doubtless there are men whom, if I chose to encourage, I might marry; but no matrimonial lot is even remotely offered me which seems to me truly desirable.
While its largely assumed that Charlottes passion for M Heger was not encouraged and not reciprocated and it is certainly unlikely Charlotte would have encouraged or pursued a married man it may be that he was not entirely blameless and had paid more attention than was seemly to her .Its seems incomprehensible that the very moral and upright Charlotte would have formed a passionate attachment to or wrote to M Heger if she had not thought her letters would be welcome .
There seems to have been something that triggered the Hegers withdrawal of friendship and intimacy and it happened after Emily had returned to Yorkshire,perhaps Emily had been wary of M Heger or al least guarding Charlotte .
Iniatly Charlotte seems to have been equally fond of both of the Hegers and to have respected both
Letter to Ellen Nussey
As I told you before, M and Madame Heger are the only two persons in the house for whom I really experience regard and esteem;
before the relationship soured
Letter to Emily
Of late days, M. and Madame Heger rarely speak to me; and I really don’t pretend to care a fig for anybody else in the establishment. I am convinced she (Madame Heger) does not like me; why, I can’t tell. Nor do I think she herself has any definite reason for this aversion. (!) M. Heger is wondrously influenced by Madame. He has already given me a brief lecture on universal bienveillance; and perceiving that I don’t improve in consequence, I fancy he has taken to considering me as a person to be let alone, left to the error of her ways, and consequently he has, in a great measure, withdrawn the light of his countenance; and I get on from day to day, in a Robinson Crusoe like condition, very lonely.”
Charlotte’s initial letter is not overly familiar and could have been equally worded had she been writing to Md Heger , it seems odd for a teacher not to reply to such a lonely ex pupil unless the unexplained promise made this a major issue or perhaps there’s a lost reply ,we only have one side fo the correspondence perhaps also incomplete.
“I may, then, write to you, without breaking my promise. The summer and winter have seemed very long to me; in truth, it has cost me painful efforts to endure up to now the privation I have imposed upon myself. You, for your part, cannot understand this! But, Monsieur, try to imagine, for one moment, that one of your children is a hundred and sixty leagues away from you; and that you are condemned to remain for six months, without writing to him; without receiving any news from him; without hearing anything about him; without knowing how he is; well, then you may be able to understand, perhaps, how hard is such an obligation imposed upon me.”
Monsieur, the poor do not need much to keep them alive; they ask only for the crumbs that fall from the rich man’s table, but if these crumbs are refused them, then they die of hunger! For me too, I make no claim either to great affection from those I love; I should hardly know how to understand an exclusive and perfect friendship, I have so little experience of it! But once upon a time, at Bruxelles, when I was your pupil, you did show me a little interest: and just this small amount of interest you gave me then, I hold to and I care for and prize, as I hold to and care for life itself . . .
. . . I will not re-read this letter, I must send it as it is written. And yet I know, by some secret instinct, that certain absolutely reasonable and cool-headed people reading it through will say: ‘She appears to have gone mad.’ By way of revenge on such judges, all I would wish them is that they too might endure, for one day only, the sufferings I have borne for eight months-then, one would see, if they too did not ‘appear to have gone mad.’
One endures in silence whilst one has his strength to do it. But when this strength fails one, one speaks without weighing one’s words. I wish Monsieur all happiness and prosperity. “
Charlotte mentions a pink dress in villette where the wearer Lucy snow is taken to task about wearing a pink evening gown .the incident is often seen as proof Charlotte wore frumpy clothes and didnt like bright colours yet the wrapper with its pretty flounces and bright pink design clearly shows that she loved pretty feminine things .The idea of the sisters wandering around in the morning in their pretty girly clothing then doning prime brown or grey gowns to receive visitors is also I feel quite endearing and brings the hidden private world of the family alive to those now visiting their home
The Ivory fan (d67)
Image from the online archive of the Bronte Parsonage Museum
As a gift from Ellen Nussey this provides a chance to discuss Charlotte’s friends and talk briefly about Ellen But equally importantly This like the little black satin slippers (not currently on display )symbolises Charlotte’s new life amongst the rich and famous in the london circle and her visits to people such as the Kay Shuttleworths .Charlotte visited Parliament
On one occasion I took Miss Bronte to the Ladies’ Gallery of the House of Commons. The Ladies’ Gallery of those days was behind the Strangers’ Gallery, and from it one could see the eyes of the ladies above, nothing more
She went on more than one occasion to the Great Exhibition ,attended lectures ,visited the theatre and though she only briefly had a chance to experience this life it did widen her world and give her new ideas for her novels,,the characters she met replace the insular life of Jane Eyre or the rural yorkshire folk of Shirley ,such as the Curates and Taylors ,with the wider social circle of Villete .
Aunt Branwell also left an Ivory fan to Emily in her will and fans were an essential item of fashion not just as an accessory but for the purely practical reason that in hot weather or hot rooms the many layers of Victorian clothing can become hot and oppressive.
Charlotte while often isolated during her early years spent a suprising amount of time traveling after her sisters deaths ,visiting London on several occasions ,the lake district and Scotland.She also paid visits to various friends.
In London she talks of trips to the theatre ,the zoo,the great exhibition ,lectures ,parliament and to an assortment of other places for dinner or lunch appointments .In Victorian society the correct accessories were essential for every occasion,The parsonage recently acquired a black parasol possibly used for carriage drives such as one described by Charlotte while she was staying with the Kay Shuttleworths.The black parasol is almost a symbol of the wanderings of Bronte artifacts and of the Brontes universal appeal.It began its post Charlotte life in Oxenhope then ext village along from Haworth ,from there it travelled with the family who owned it to Canada,in recent years it was kindly offered to the Parsonage and returned home .,its full story is here,,
The black lace tippet /stole
There are several black lace items but I chose this as it’s on display and while perhaps not the same one gives scope to discuss Charlottes mourning and her sisters deaths and early visit to london.
Harriet Martineau remembers
Miss Bronte was announced; and in came a young-looking lady, almost child-like in stature, in a deep mourning dress, neat as a Quaker’s, with her beautiful hair smooth and brown, her fine eyes blazing with meaning and her sensible face indicating a habit of self-control.”
but also letters to Ellen about choosing black or white lace stole ,because the black shows up better against her dress.
The Barage dress fragment ,as this fabric seems to have been a favourite as do the colours of cream or white with green patterns ,A dress fragment from Charlottes trousseau is this very delicate pretty semi transparent fabric and a dress of this fabric and style is also mentioned in correspondence about Charlotte ,It was on an evening dinner visit to Thackery
Its remember by Anne Thackery who was young at the time
Two gentlemen come in,” accounts Anne, “leading a tiny, delicate, serious little lady, with fair, straight hair and steady eyes. She may be a little over thirty; she is dressed in a little barége dress with a pattern of faint green moss. She enters in mittens, in silence, in seriousness; our hearts are beating with wild excitement.”
Barege is a very light sheer fabric which could be made of cotton ,wool or silk but its defining characteristic was its transparency and in 1850s it was very fashionable ,it was the subject of a punch cartoon in 1850
A FRIENDLY HINT TO YOUNG LADIES WHO WEAR THOSE DEAR DELIGHTFUL BARÈGE DRESSES. ALWAYS LET THE SLIP (OR WHATEVER THE MYSTERIOUS GARMENT IS CALLED) BE AS LONG AS THE OUTER DRESS?
It seems unlikely Mr Bronte would have been easy about such a flimsy fabric if as has been suggested he utterly forbade wearing cotton ,he probably actively discouraged the wearing of light gowns but can not have been the deciding influence in his daughters clothing choice once they reached adulthood.
The gown above is Barege ,I also managed to finally find a pair of sleeves in the fabric,though unfortunately they are black ,but I will now to able to provide a “visual aid for the barege fragment.
Other items likely to receive passing mentions are the little half boot /shoes and gloves
A stripe silk dress described in the museum catalogue as
|silk striped, mauve/cream/green/pink; lined throughout with glazed cotton, high neckline with front cleft, fullness over the shoulders, gathered to V at waist, sleeves belling out with frill and lace, four tassels at points of goresI am indebted to the Bronte Parsonage museums site for the above detailshttp://www.bronte.org.uk/|